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July 12, 2018

Presbycusis refers to the loss of hearing that steadily happens in many people as they age. Loss of hearing is a typical issue related to aging. “Approximately 30-35% of adults 65 years and older suffer from hearing loss. Studies also show that 40 to 50% of individuals 75 years and older suffer from hearing loss” (Purnami et al., 2020, p. 1). “Some of the signs and symptoms of presbycusis are slurred or mumbled speech, conversations that are difficult to comprehend, high pitched sounds such as “th” and “S” which are tough to hear, overly loud sounds and tinnitus” (Zhang et al., 2020, p. 2).Sensorineural hearing misfortune is brought about by issues of the auditory nerve or inner ear. Presbycusis is, for the most part, a sensorineural hearing issue. Steady changes in the inner ear commonly cause this issue. The combined impacts of repeated subjection to everyday construction work or loud traffic sounds, noisy workplaces, devices that make noise, and loud music can lead to sensorineural hearing issues. The sensorineural hearing usually begins because of lost hair cells which are tactile receptors of the inner ear. This hearing loss can also happen due to genetic and aging factors, different ailments, and adverse effects of specific prescriptions like ibuprofen and individual anti-infection agents (Purnami et al., 2020). Presbycusis might be brought about by changes in the blood supply channels towards the ear due to cardiovascular illnesses, hypertension, vascular conditions brought about by diabetes, or other circulatory issues.The hearing loss can be subtle, moderate, or profound. Sometimes, presbycusis may be a conductive hearing problem, which means loss of sound affectability is brought about by variations from the norm of the outer ear and middle ear. The inconsistencies may incorporate the tympanic membrane’s decreased capability, also called the eardrum or diminished capacity of the three small bones found in the ear that convey ripples of sound from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear. The presbycusis differential diagnosis encompasses noise exposure, trauma, perilymph fistula, autoimmune disease, otosclerosis, Meniere disease, metabolic dysfunction, infection, genetically inherited presbycusis, and exposure to ototoxic agents (Cheslock, 2020).Some of the interventions which are available for patients with presbycusis to remove the wax blockage, surgical procedures whereby a doctor can insert tiny tubes that assist in draining the ear if the patient has repeated infections, use of cochlear implants if the patient has a severe hearing impairment, or use of hearing aids if the inner ear is damaged (Zhang et al., 2020).There are three different kinds of retinal and macular diseases. These are:• Stargardt disease is an inherited retinal issue that usually leads to vision loss in children or adults.• Wet macular degeneration is a severe eye disorder causing blurred vision and is caused by unusual leaking blood vessels that leak blood or fluid into the macular.• Dry macular degeneration is the deterioration of the retina whereby a tiny yellow deposit called drusen forms under the retina.

ReferencesCheslock, M. (2020). Presbycusis. PubMed. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32644646/. (Links to an external site.)Purnami, N., Mulyaningsih, E. F., Ahadiah, T. H., Utomo, B., & Smith, A. (2020). Score of Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE) Compared to Whisper Test on Presbycusis. Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12070-020-01997-5  (Links to an external site.)Zhang, W., Yu, Z., & Ruan, Q. (2020). Presbycusis-Related Tinnitus and Cognitive Impairment: Gender Differences and Common Mechanisms. Multiple Chronic Conditions – Overview and Management of Chronic Disease Clusters. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.90956 (Links to an external site.).Hearing Eye Age-Related Diseases, discussion board week 5.docx


Hearing and Eye Age-Related Diseases

Over the past years, hearing and age-related diseases have been a threat to human lives and are a rising difficulty for most health professionals. In society, the widespread of low vision and hearing problems have increased continuously with age among all the racial and ethnic categories. Similarly, age-related and hearing diseases are expensive and, therefore, a menace to the aged’s potentiality to live singly. In the 2013 Eye and Hearing Prevalence Research Group report, it was revealed that the hearing and age-related diseases double each year; also, one among the 28 American adults above 40 years are associated with eye and hearing diseases (Teutsch & Rechel, 2012). As such, the focus of this essay is threefold: To define presbycusis and identify its signs and symptoms, etiology, and differential diagnosis. To create three interventions-education measures with a patient with presbycusis and lastly, to list, define, and elaborate on three different retinal and macular diseases age-related.

Presbycusis, its Signs and Symptoms, Etiology, and Diagnosis

Presbycusis refers to the loss of hearing, which frequently takes place in aged individuals. The disorder mostly limits the hearing of high pitched sounds. For instance, the aged find it challenging to hear closer sounds of birds’ chirping or ringing of a phone.  The symptoms include the address of other individuals seeming slurred, the challenge in hearing and telling high pitch sounds, difficulty in understanding conversations, the occurrence of tinnitus, and particular sounds seeming or overloud or irritating (Teutsch & Rechel, (2012). Presbycusis’ diagnosis and etiology reveal that the disorders cause it regarding the inner or auditory nerve. The changes in the significant year as an individual gets older cause the disorder. The disorder can also be caused by overloud sounds such as traffic, equipment, or music. Additionally, it can be caused by the changes in the blood supply in the body due to the conditions of heart diseases or high blood pressure. 

Interventions-Education Measures of a Patient with Presbycusis

There are various interventions prescribed for hearing disorders. In surgical intervention, there is the implant of the cochlear. The implant process involves a multiplex electronic device that acts as a replacement of the internal ear cochlea. The process is essentials in enabling the patients to understand the sound and speech wave. Secondly is the management intervention. The intervention involves the devices of the hearing aids and aural rehabilitation. The hearing aid is essential in helping advance the hearing of the aged. In pharmaceuticals intervention, includes the transcription of pharmaceutical drugs such as Tankan, eblesen, and antioxidant therapy. The drugs are essential in the treatment of the hearing disorder. 

Retinal and Macular Diseases Age-Related

There are different retinal and macular diseases related to age. Firstly is the dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). It is a condition that involves the macula layers getting continually thinner and defunctioning of their functionality. In its initial stages, the color of the macula changes, and tiny drusen are seen, which leads to the deterioration of the retina.  In wet AMD, newly advanced blood vessels implant in the choroid layer just next to the retina. It is also called choroidal neovascularization. The newly created vessels are usually weak leading to the leaking of fluids, lipids, and blood, which gets into the retina, causing scar tissue formation, which stops the functionality of the retina cells (O’Keefe-McCarthy, 2009). Lastly, the Stargardt is also another type of macular degeneration, majorly caused by a recessive gene in individuals. 

In conclusion, hearing and age-related eye disorder is a significant issue that needs various recommendations. Presbycusis is a hearing disorder that occurs in older adults. Its symptoms are associated with the difficulty of understanding the sound waves. The intervention measures for a patient with Presbycusis include management intervention, surgical intervention, and pharmaceutical intervention. The retinal and macular diseases age-related include the wet AMD, Stargardt, and the dry AMD.


O’Keefe-McCarthy, S. (2009). Technologically-mediated nursing care: The impact on moral agency. Nursing Ethics, 16(6), 76-796.

Teutsch, S., & Rechel, B. (2012). Ethics of resource allocation and rationing medical care in a time of fiscal restraint: US and Europe. Public Health Reviews, 34(1), 1-10.

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